Focusing on improving the overall quality and efficiency of wheat, according to the fertilizer requirement of different types of wheat and soil fertility in wheat field, on the basis of increasing the input of organic fertilizer, high-quality wheat field is focused on effectively regulating nitrogen fertilizer application technology, and generally high-yield field control nitrogen Stabilized phosphorus and potassium increased, and the middle-aged field stabilized nitrogen and increased phosphorus to target potassium fertilizer.
First, the main points of fertilization technology (1), ordinary wheat should continue to increase the application of organic fertilizer, rational application of nitrogen fertilizer, stable application of phosphate fertilizer, increase of potassium fertilizer and micro-fertilizer. It is required to apply more than 3.5 square meters of organic fertilizer. High-fertility plot (over 400-500 kg per mu) Nitrogen application 20 kg/mu, phosphorus 7 kg/mu, potassium 5 kg/mu (isolated ammonium carbonate 118 kg, superphosphate 60 kg, potassium sulfate or Potassium hydride (15 kg), organic fertilizer 4.5 square meters / acre; medium fertility plots throughout the growing period of nitrogen application 17 kg / mu, phosphorus 7 kg / mu, potassium 5 kg / mu (equivalent to carbon ammonium 100 kg, superphosphate 60 Kilograms, potassium sulphate or potassium hydride 15 kg), organic fertilizer 4 square meters / acre; medium and low fertility plots throughout the growth period of nitrogen application 14 kg / acre, phosphorus 6 kg / acre (equivalent to ammonium carbonate 80 kg, superphosphate 50 Kg), organic fertilizer 3 square meters / acre. The organic fertilizer is uniformly applied to the bottom, and the phosphorus and potassium fertilizers are applied in layers, which can cover 60-70% of the bottom, 40-30% of the sprinkling head, so that the whole soil layer is evenly distributed; the nitrogen fertilizer changes the previous application method and is changed to 4:4:2 The application method is 40% as the base fertilizer, 40% as the first top dressing, 20% as the second top dressing in the booting stage, and the basic principle of â€œadapting to local conditions, classification guidance, and staged applicationâ€ should be mastered in the application of nitrogen fertilizer. The late sowing period, the weaker wheat field, after the three-leaf period, 5 kg of urea per acre to promote tillering; the spring topdressing is divided into two applications, the first time in the re-greening joint period (mainly ammonium bicarbonate); Secondly from the booting to the flag-raising period (mainly urea). The top dressing method adopts the hole application or the ditch application method to avoid the application and timely watering after application.
Late root dressing is an effective measure to increase the 1000-grain weight of wheat. It is generally carried out from mid-April to early May. 1-2% urea solution is sprayed on the wheat field with premature aging; 0.2-0.4% phosphoric acid is sprayed on the wheat field with more nitrogen fertilizer. Potassium dihydrogen solution; for microbial field, spray micro-fertilizer, zinc sulfate solution concentration is 0.1-0.3%, borax or boric acid solution concentration is 0.1-0.2%, and manganese sulfate is 0.05-0.1% The ammonium molybdate is 0.02-0.05%. The outer and outer spray fertilizers are required to be sprayed on the front and back sides of the leaves. The spraying amount is 40-75 kg per mu. The spraying time is preferably after 4 pm.
(B), high-quality strong gluten wheat strong gluten wheat nitrogen demand, strong nitrogen absorption in the middle and late, nitrogen conversion is fast. According to the characteristics of fertilizer demand, based on the common wheat fertilization technology, adjust the bottom-to-earth ratio of nitrogen fertilizer, implement the method of pre-nitrogen post-shift, stabilize phosphorus and potassium, and stage topdressing to increase the yield of strong gluten wheat and improve the quality of wheat.
1. Adjust the bottom-to-bottom ratio of nitrogen fertilizer: 60% for nitrogen fertilizer, 35% for topdressing, and 5% for foliar application.
2. Pre-nitrogen post-shifting, staging and topdressing: In the case of suitable soil moisture, the land should be suitable for the general conditions of the soil and the seedlings. The first fertilizer in spring should be postponed to the beginning of the jointing stage, and 15-20 kg of urea should be applied per acre combined with watering. For the land with poor soil fertility and weak seedlings, the first fertilizer in spring can be advanced to the starting period; for the higher ground and the seedlings are more prosperous, the fertilizer can be delayed until the end of the jointing.
3. In the middle and late period, the application of enhanced fertilizer: the absorption capacity of strong gluten wheat in the middle and late growth period is obviously higher than that of the general variety, so it should be applied 5-7 kg per mu in the combination of watering from the booting stage to the heading and flowering stage. It is also possible to spray 2-3% urea solution (plus 0.5%-1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution) on the foliar surface during the opening period, and spray 50-60 kg per acre. Applying a small amount of fertilizer after the booting stage can reduce the degradation of florets, increase the number of grains per spike, increase the protein content of grain, and increase the quantity and quality of gluten. Therefore, the management of fertilizer in the middle and late stages of strong gluten wheat is to improve the quality of wheat cultivation. A key measure, but the fertilizer should not be too late in this period, the soil fertilization is not later than the flowering period, and the foliar application is generally no later than the filling period. If it is too late, it will not be able to exert its fertilizer effect. Second, it will easily lead to plantage and late maturity.
4, spraying rare earth fertilizer: high-quality wheat can be sprayed with rare earth fertilizer after foliar application, the concentration is 0.03%, a total of 2-3 sprays.
Huaxian County Agricultural Products Inspection and Testing Center Chang Bili
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